469–503. The territory of the South African Republic became known after this war as the Transvaal Colony.[52]. [126] The small initial group of free burghers, as these farmers were known, steadily increased in number and began to expand their farms further north and east into the territory of the Khoikhoi. [60], By the end of 1847, following annexation by Britain of the former Boer republic of Natalia, nearly all the Boers had left their former republic, which the British renamed Natal. [92] Revenue accruing to the Cape Colony from the Kimberley diamond diggings enabled the Cape Colony to be granted responsible government status in 1872, since it was no longer dependent on the British Treasury and hence allowing it to be fully self-governing in similar fashion to the federation of Canada, New Zealand and some of the Australian states. The convention declared that apartheid was both unlawful and criminal because it violated the Charter of the United Nations. His impis (warrior regiments) were rigorously disciplined: failure in battle meant death.[44]. Directions: Examine the chart below, then respond to the questions. Gol(raw materials), Glory(more land ment more power), and God(convert people to Christianity) ... Who was the first to colonize South Africa? Desiree Hansson, "Changes in counter-revolutionary state strategy in the decade 1979–89", in Desiree Hansson and Dirk van Zyl Smit (eds.). These refugees and asylum seekers originated mainly from Zimbabwe, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia.[227]. [180], Both South Africa and Cuba claimed victory at the decisive battle of Cuito Cuanavale, which have been described as "the fiercest in Africa since World War II". [138] When the war ended, the OB was one of the anti-parliamentary groups absorbed into the National Party.[139][140]. Likewise the Indian element (led by Mahatma Gandhi) generally supported the war effort. In 1818 differences between two Xhosa leaders, Ndlambe and Ngqika, ended in Ngqika's defeat, but the British continued to recognise Ngqika as the paramount chief. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. The war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, including an overwhelming victory by the Zulu at the Battle of Isandlwana, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of imperialism in the region. It caused the consolidation of groups such as the Matebele, the Mfengu and the Makololo. By 1900, when the force of the quick colonization was over, the majority of the land in Africa was divided up amongst seven different European colonizing nations: Britain, France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, Italy, and Portugal. The government declared martial law on 14 October 1914, and forces loyal to the government under the command of generals Louis Botha and Jan Smuts defeated the rebellion. Meanwhile, the British, who viewed their defeat at Majuba as an aberration, forged ahead with their desire to federate the Southern African colonies and republics. Instead of sending their military around the world, the Dutch government granted private companies the right to control a trade monopoly within certain regions. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Black and mixed-race South Africans who had supported the war were embittered when post-war South Africa saw no easing of white domination and racial segregation. By June 1900, Pretoria, the last of the major Boer towns, had surrendered. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe, which was located near the northern border of present-day South Africa, at the confluence of the Limpopo and Shashe rivers adjacent to present-day Zimbabwe and Botswana, was the first indigenous kingdom in southern Africa between AD 900 and 1300. [225] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) found that competition over jobs, business opportunities, public services and housing gave rise to tension among refugees, asylum seekers, migrants and host communities, identified as a main cause of the xenophobic violence. BP Willan, "The South African Native Labour Contingent, 1916–1918". This Second Anglo-Boer War, also known as the South African War lasted longer than the first, with British troops being supplemented by colonial troops from Southern Rhodesia, Canada, India, Australia and New Zealand. The National Party championed Afrikaner interests, advocating separate development for the two white groups, and independence from Britain. The incident was widely criticised by the public, civil society organisations and religious leaders. Dutch in America: 1624-1664: In 1621 the States General in the Netherlands grant a charter to the Dutch West India Company, giving it a monopoly to trade and found colonies along the entire length of the American coast. Racial segregation and white minority rule known officially as apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", was implemented in 1948. In mid-1903 there remained barely half of the 90,000 black labourers who had been employed in the industry in mid-1899. The major European colonizers in SEA included Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Britain, and France. [153] Four hundred M-113A1 armoured personnel carriers, and 106mm recoilless rifles manufactured in the United States were delivered to South Africa via Israel. An academic study conducted in 2006, found that South Africans showed levels of xenophobia greater than anywhere else in the world. [14][15][16] The initial origin of the Khoikhoi remains uncertain.[17][18]. [75] The British then set about establishing large sugar plantations in the area today named KwaZulu-Natal Province. Kruger rejected the British demand and called for the withdrawal of British troops from the borders of the South African Republic. ... what kind of people in south africa were colonized by the dutch? It was home to pastoralist Africans called the Khoikhoi, who the Dutch called Hottentots. [51] The republic, under the premiership of Paul Kruger, defeated British forces in the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British. The British then seized the Cape in 1795 to prevent it from falling into French hands. Under-standing the country’s history explains why these languages are spoken there. The South African Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB (meaning Afrikaner Resistance Movement), a militant neo-Nazi, mainly Afrikaner white supremacist movement that arose in the 1970s, and was active until the mid-1990s, openly used a flag that closely resembled the swastika. In 1795, the British, who were at war with France, invaded the Cape Peninsula from False Bay and took over the Cape (including Cape Town) from the Dutch until 1803 when the colony was handed back to the Dutch. Archaeological discoveries of livestock bones on the Cape Peninsula indicate that the Khoikhoi began to settle there by about 2000 years ago. Friction between the Griquas and the settlers over land rights resulted in British troops being sent to the region in 1845. In 1795 the Cape was captured by the British during the French Revolutionary Wars, and the 1814 peace settlement decided that it should remain British. [20] By the time of their defeat and expulsion from the Cape Peninsula and surrounding districts, the Khoikhoi population was decimated by a smallpox epidemic introduced by Dutch sailors against which the Khoikhoi had no natural resistance or indigenous medicines.[21]. British colonisation, Mfecane and Boer Republics (1815–1910), Area Study – South Africa, US Library of Congress. After the March 1960 massacre of 69 peaceful demonstrators at Sharpeville, and the subsequent declaration of a state of emergency, and the banning of anti-apartheid parties including the African National Congress (ANC), the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), and the Communist Party of South Africa, the focus of national resistance turned to armed struggle and underground activity. [53] The name Orange Free State was again changed to the Orange River Colony, created by Britain after the latter occupied it in 1900 and then annexed it in 1902 during the Second Boer War. [3] European exploration of the African coast began in the 13th century when Portugal committed itself to discover an alternative route to the silk road that would lead to China. By the end of the siege, about three weeks later, Mokopane and between 1,000 and 3,000 people had died in the caves. About three thousand Zulu warriors died in the clash known historically as the Battle of Blood River.[73][74]. Subsequent to the killing of the Retief party, the Boers defended themselves against a Zulu attack, at the Ncome River on 16 December 1838. Afrikaans holds status as an official language of South Africa today, and is actively spoken by around 13% of the population. [211] The slow pace of transformation also fomented tensions within the tripartite alliance between the ANC, the Communist Party and the Congress of South African Trade Unions. A local trader Dick King and his servant Ndongeni, who later became folk heroes, were able to escape the blockade and ride to Grahamstown, a distance of 600 km (372.82 miles) in 14 days to raise British reinforcements. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company charged Jan They traded across the world, and in turn visited many places and set up many colonies. Southern Africa was later populated by Bantu-speaking people who migrated from the western region of central Africa during the early centuries AD. South Africa was colonized by two different powers, the Dutch and the English. In response, the stadtholder, who had taken up residence in England, issued the Kew Letters, ordering colonial governors to surrender to the British. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company charged Jan The Cape nonetheless remained nominally part of the British Empire, even though it was self-governing in practice. Independent sovereignty of the republic was formally recognised by Great Britain with the signing of the Sand River Convention on 17 January 1852. It had a healthy, subtropical and partly fertile hinterland, which was virtually unoccupied. The Dutch descendants of these settlers can be found across the nation of South Africa today, where they constitute an ethnic group known as the Afrikaners and maintain the unique Afrikaans language, a derivative of vernacular colonial Dutch. A strong relationship existed between the African National Congress (ANC) and the UDF, based on the shared mission statement of the Freedom Charter. As punishment to the Basotho, the governor and commander-in-chief of the Cape Colony, Sir George Cathcart, deployed troops to the Mohokare River; Moshoeshoe was ordered to pay a fine. This did not prevent the outbreak of a Second Anglo-Boer war. [175] A controversial bombing and airborne assault conducted by 200 South African paratroopers on 4 May 1978 at Cassinga in southern Angola, resulted in around 700 South West Africans being killed, including PLAN militants and a large number of women and children. The civil rights struggle of Gandhi's Natal Indian Congress failed; until the 1994 advent of democracy, Indians in South Africa were subject to most of the discriminatory laws that applied to all non-white inhabitants of the country. However, if you'd asked somebody this question in the 17th century, they would have placed the Netherlands at the top of the list. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The territories that would later form the Dutch Republic began as a loose federation known as the Seventeen Provinces, which Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and (as "Carlos I") King of Spain, inherited and brought under his direct rule in 1543. [157] At the same time, State-sponsored vigilante groups carried out violent attacks on communities and community leaders associated with resistance to apartheid. From 1948–1994, South African politics was dominated by Afrikaner nationalism. [86] Cape Colony Governor Sir Henry Barkly persuaded all claimants to submit themselves to a decision of an arbitrator and so Robert W Keate, Lieutenant-Governor of Natal was asked to arbitrate. Homo sapiens [ 10 ], within two years of college and save off., germany and Italy had, too July 1976, Anne Kelk Mager and Bill Nasson eds. ] East Griqualand was subsequently annexed by Britain in person or through an agent Assembly had already South! Territory to the questions imperialism in southern Africa was pretty much a necessary stop along the around... In 1664 only a few years after the Napoleonic wars, Britain experienced a serious unemployment.. In the 14th century many other people of European Jewish origin in 2011 than in 2005 this formal.. 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