This means you have the option to read your magazine on most popular phones and tablets. All of which are designed to elicit strikes from trophy trout on down. Hook: 90-degree jig hook. Different water conditions and times of the year call for different fly lines. Large articulated streamers that were originally developed for trout fishing in western states likes Montana, Colorado, and Wyoming will also be productive on fall smallmouth. He specializes in smallmouth bass and other warm-water species. Hello everyone, I have thought, read, and watched videos of different ways to ensure the front sacrificial hook for articulated flies is smooth after clipping it off. He owns and operates Susquehanna River Guides where he guides clients on the Susquehanna and Juniata Rivers. There are a few common mistakes when tying flies with this method, but they are easily overcome. Do I need to fish shallow, deep, or mid-depth? Flies never look the same in the water as they do in your vise. Try out The Fly Fishers' 10 favorite smallmouth bass flies and start fly fishing bass like a seasoned pro. Locating fish is the first step to a successful outing. While jigging the streamer close to my feet to watch its action, I was amazed to see a 10-inch trout attempt to eat the streamer even though it was nearly half the length of the little fish's body. A few years ago, fly tier, guide, and author Kelly Galloup (slideinn.com) began placing beads on the loop used to join the two sections, which gave the streamers more movement and made them less prone to fouling. You can use plastic, glass, or metal beads but be careful with metal beads when using fly line backing, because they sometimes have sharp edges that can wear through the material. When speaking with anglers about articulation, I am still surprised that many consider articulated streamers to be too big for their home trout streams. ... Articulated streamers, or articulated flies in general, are decades old. If, where, and how much weight you use has a huge effect on the behavior of your streamer in the water. The Jointed MInnow. Don’t waste your time fishing unproductive water. Hi, It was then that I realized that trout, like bass and most other predators, will try to eat any food they can fit in their mouths. Smallmouth bass fly fishing, particularly for fish seventeen inches and above, is tough to beat as a freshwater fly fishing experience. When using the hook-to-hook method, I usually use 20- or 30-pound Dacron backing. Brian has been guiding for over 20 years. If the wire is too thick, it impedes the movement of the joint. Learning the simple water haul technique allows even novice anglers to fish these patterns with a sinking-tip with little trouble. Tailing loops often cause articulated streamers to foul. This fly is designed to be a fly that is pretty simple to tie, and they can be tied in a wide range of colors and sizes. I favor a hook only in the rear, but with some species like pike or musky, a second hook up front can be an advantage. When you want to fish just under the surface with a streamer (weighted or unweighted), or if you have low, clear water conditions and need a stealthy approach. Kelly Galloup’s articulated streamer patterns from Montana work well and most of these flies have large profiles as some of them are tied with wool or spun deer hair heads. Hitting the river with big flies, heavy rods, and sink tips - the streamer junkie chases moments not numbers. The Jointed Minnow is a two-part articulated fly made by joining two Mustad 3366 hooks and then covering them with a relatively new material called Wapsi Palmer Chenille. Whether you're just starting out or are an experienced smallmouth fly angler, here are 3 things to think about to increase your odds if your success rate isn’t what you expect it to be. Weight. The hook-to-hook method is the easiest place to start, and is probably the most widely used articulation method. How to Fly Fish Smallmouth Bass When you are out fly fishing for smallmouths, there are different techniques you can use to fish them out of your favorite spot in the river or the lake. During the spawn, smallmouth can sometimes refrain from eating actively. Here in Montana it is crucial to have some hefty streamers to get the bruiser trout to move and eat. Keep in mind I’m still referring to articulated jig flies. The fish are mean and tough. Success in catching smallmouth bass on the fly comes down to putting yourself in the right location and crafting your presentation to match the day's conditions. If you do a search for "best" or "top ten" streamers for smallmouth bass, you are presented with an eclectic mix of patterns, typically opaque, with big googly eyes and using all kinds of new-agey materials -- often accompanied by seductive promises of fish-catchess prowess. The mighty smallmouth is found in over 2,000 rivers and thousands of lakes across North America, and readily strikes flies year around. The rear half of my Chain Reaction streamer continues to move freely when being swung or between strips, because the joint has more freedom of movement than the other methods. Different water conditions and times of the year call for different fly lines. His Chain Reaction Leech is available at orvis.com. Methods of articulation have evolved for the better since I was first shown how to lash two hooks together with gel-spun backing, but one thing remains constant—these flies are extremely effective. I am usually in PA mid-June until the first of October. Hank, 1856 Belgrade Avenue, Suite B-4, Charleston, SC 29407. We got a chance to fish this fly a little bit in November last season, and we can certainly vouch for the trout part. Norvise Magnum Stainless Hubs (Coming soon to a fly fishing show near you) 1.Place shank into vice and cover with thread 2.Cut a piece of marabou 1 ½ in long, tie in marabou tail, tail should be 1 3/8 long, add flash on top of tail, 3 strands of silver, 2 strands of pearl double over thread and tie down. Fortunately for us, bass aren't known for being especially selective when it comes to fly patterns, and generally some of the same streamers or large, bushy dry flies that fool trout will fool smallmouth. You've positioned yourself in the most productive water and you're fishing the correct line for the day’s conditions. Super Glue is crucial for tying Strung-Out flies. Another way to use a sink tip is with a unweighted streamer and a long leader. |   Experiment. Our range of flies ensures that boxes can be filled with confidence flies that run the gamut of articulation to micro streamers. Is there busting bait? Large articulated streamers that were originally developed for trout fishing in western states likes Montana, Colorado and Wyoming will also be productive on fall smallmouth. No matter which method you choose, adding articulated flies to your boxes brings a new facet to your fishing arsenal. Plan your next fishing and boating adventure here. Also, you can miss strikes if the hook is not near the Zonker strip when the fish strikes it, and this is frequently the case due to the weight of the hook and relative buoyancy of a Zonker strip. All Fly Fisherman subscribers now have digital access to their magazine content. It moves a ton of water and really has a great action. Something about articulated flies resonated, like a surrealistic version of a Jointed Rapala--the lure Galloup says inspired him to dive into articulated tying. Nonetheless, flies like the Clouser minnow, articulated conehead minnow or woolly bugger would make great food as well. Kelly Galloup’s articulated streamer patterns from Montana work well and most of these flies have large profiles as some of them are tied with wool or spun deer hair heads. The same pattern tied without weight might swim more naturally but is ineffective unless you can get it down to the fish. A heavy streamer nosedives when you stop stripping it. The long loop leads to increased fouling, but allows you to switch hooks to suit different fisheries. There is little need to add joints to small drys and nymphs, but jointed flies excel at imitating large prey items such as long swimming aquatic insects (Hexagenia and Isonychia), or baitfish and other swimming food sources such as leeches and sculpins. However, articulated streamers have really become hugely popular within the last ten years. Temps for Trout: How to Catch Fish that Behave Hot n Cold, How to Remove Wind Knots and Snarls from Leaders and Tippet, Hobie 360 Drive Kayak Propulsion Technology: Power and Control in Any Direction. A sink, bathtub, or aquarium is helpful when developing new articulated flies. Eventually, I found Daiichi 2141 hooks with a straight looped eye, which worked perfectly with the custom front shanks to create a free-moving joint similar to that you'd find in a Rapala. Smallmouth bass swim in lakes and rivers across the United States and Canada and are a premier fly-rod game fish in almost every way--they take flies readily, feed on diverse foods for a long period of time, tolerate higher water temperatures than trout, and fight harder than any … Plenty of trophy fish have been lost to backing failures, so it is best to take every precaution against this. I remember my fly-fishing mentor Joe DeMarkis lamenting that he lost a trophy trout in Alaska due to the joint failure in an articulated fly I tied for him. He builds the body of his fly around the backing material, which gives the fly excellent movement and keeps the hook exactly where you need it — at the tail of the fly. A long-shank hook looks rigid and unnatural. Anglers who are not used to hurling a 5-inch streamer—and the sinking-tip line that usually goes hand-in-hand—need to practice smooth casting strokes and long pauses to allow the line to straighten and avoid tailing loops. Take some time and observe what is going on in the water and on the water. Spent most of my time fly fishing salt water in SW Florida—about eight months a year, but return to Williamsport for a few summer months and would like to join you smallmouth fishing! … To get started, click the link below to visit mymagnow.com and learn how to access your digital magazine. Whether you are fishing articulated nymphs or streamers, the added movement and better leverage leads to more fish landed, and greater confidence when fighting salmon, steelhead, bass, and other large gamefish. It is strong enough that on straight pull tests, a #1 Daiichi 2141 rear hook would bend out without the front wire even bending or deforming. Following his visit, I tied as many articulated streamers as I could for anglers traveling to his lodge that summer, and also managed to tie a few for my fishing trips on the Susquehanna River. 3. Looking forward to hear from you. Some tiers leave a long loop of backing at the rear to attach the hook with a lark's head or cow hitch. Short-shank hooks are much more effective at keeping a fish on the line. You could fish with a floating line all the time, but you'd be limiting yourself by not presenting the fly to the fish in the strike zone and keeping it there. A musky or bluefish might saw your streamer in half if it was tied with fly line backing instead of wire. In a nutshell, the rear portion of the fly is tied on one hook and then a length of monofilament, fly line backing, or wire is looped through the eye of the hook and then lashed to a forward hook shank with the hook bend removed. Tim Skoraszewski guides for Rivers Outdoor Adventures (riversflyfishing.com). Paul, give me a call at 717-574-5338 and we can get something set up. An articulated streamer is a streamer consisting of a joint wire connecting two hooks, thus making a larger profile and creating great wiggle movement when being fished. Using stiff backing for the loop also decreases the movement of these patterns. Nov 12, 2020 - Explore Woody M.'s board "ARTICULATED FLIES" on Pinterest. Tail: Rabbit strip. Worse still, he unknowingly continued fishing the hookless front half of the fly, losing countless other opportunities. Like all of Blaine Chocklett's "Changer" series of flies, the Polar Changer is an articulated streamer fly that has an extreme amount of swimming action and can be used on a variety of both freshwater and saltwater species. If you've been fishing a section of river or stream without success, or if you haven’t seen any activity on the water, it’s time to move on. I think we all like the flash of a big trout after it engulfs a big articulated streamer, but we don't always love tying those big time hogging bugs. Sometimes the bite can be tricky during the prime spawning month of May. See more ideas about fly tying, fly fishing, flying. 24 of the streamers are s Heifer Groomer) Kelly Galloup is the master of streamer fishing, and most of his streamers make excellent smallmouth bass flies. Years later, I still catch my largest trout, salmon, northern pike, and smallmouth and largemouth bass using articulated streamers, and I've found a few excellent ways of making them. These tips can save you heartache when fishing is hot. Fish the sections of the river that provide the two key elements for the smallmouth bass: food and structure. When fishing the Japeto Frog, cast to lily pads, moss, grass, weeds, or any structure close to the bank. Variation of Galloup's Golden Shower, tied by Gunnar Brammer. When you have higher flows or off-colored water conditions and you need to get your fly down into the strike zone. Body: Diamond braid. My search for an alternative led me to a tackle shop, where I quickly became interested in the tools and wire used to build in-line spinners. Topwater flies and lures will become more productive as summer approaches and April turns to May. Wire and heavy nylon monofilament are more durable but less mobile. A short-shank hook with a long extended body and tail results in too many short strikes. The fly is … This fly is essentially a Woolly Bugger on steroids and largemouth bass love … Years later, I still catch my largest trout, salmon, northern pike, and smallmouth and largemouth bass using articulated streamers, and I've found a few excellent ways of making them. Fish are cold-blooded, so their body temperature reflects that of the water in which they swim. Plus, backing deteriorates over time. Articulated Zoo Cougar (a.k.a. Subscribe to the Flymen Newsletter at the bottom of the page! Derek Fergus (20sub3.com) solved these problems with his Strung-Out Leech. All these tricks can be put to use on poppers or sliders for anything with fins, from panfish to billfish. Thanks Brian, I am retiring at the end of the month and will have more time for fishing so I’m planning on targeting some local smallmouth probably look you up if I have questions. This method has been used for nymphs, streamers, and large dry flies with excellent results. ©2021 Outdoor Sportsman Group. It requires one vise and no special tools, and is useful for constructing streamers, nymphs, and even dry flies. Hitting the river with big flies, heavy rods, and sink tips - the streamer junkie chases moments not numbers. The Kamikaze Sculpin is easy to tie, versatile, and smartly designed to get the job done. Correct fly line. Wire, backing, or kevlar? Our range of flies ensures that boxes can be filled with confidence flies that run the gamut of articulation to micro streamers. I recently started tying with deer hair again after a long break, so my technique needs a little work I know. Here are four common ones: Smallmouth bass are the best fish to catch, and fly fishing is a superb way to catch them … This is the place for accurate and helpful information on fly fishing for smallmouth, without the jargon or hype. I was introduced to articulated streamers several years ago when Charlie Summerville, owner of Alaska Adventures Lodge, visited our fly shop to give a presentation about fly fishing on the Alagnak River. As a guide I get to see and learn about tons of fly patterns, tying, and fishing techniques used all over the world. The materials that form the skeleton of your articulated fly can make the difference between a blockbuster day and a haunting disappointment. Long streamer hooks give the leverage advantage to the fish, and any rolling, twisting, or jumping tends to twist long-shank hooks out of a fish's mouth. You really can’t go wrong with any of his offerings, but the Ol’ Cougar really is the cream of the crop, in my opinion. In other places it might be illegal. Galloup’s Peanut Envy. In this package there are 10 articulated streamers. You could … And oh, by the way, you can't have the recipe,… However, wire is less flexible and jointed wire flies don't move in the water as well as those constructed from backing. Also, be sure to … Flies tied with the Chain Reaction method have plenty of movement, resist fouling, and are much stronger than any other articulation method I know of. For heavy-duty flies, use 15- or 30-pound American Fishing Wire, depending on the situation and hook size. Shumaker's Shimmering Minnow, tied with the Fish-Skull Articulated Fish-Spine and Living Eyes. Meat Whistle. As tough as gel-spun backing is, repeated sawing by the teeth of a trophy rainbow, coho, or other gamefish will eventually weaken it. The target species for the Japeto Frog is bass (smallmouth, largemouth, spotted), but pike, musky, and even snakeheads are targetable with this fly as well. ... Fished alongside both hard and soft jerkbaits, the lure has often produced many more bites from largemouth and smallmouth bass. At one time I had a similar view, but that changed one day when I used one of my Chain Reaction Leeches—made for a trip to Alaska—to fish a deep pool on Pennsylvania's Little Lehigh Creek. Everyone wants a definite answer to “How close can you get?”. You want to maximize your time on the water. However, problems arise when attempting to tie a truly large streamer on a single hook shank. First, a fly tied in this fashion can foul easily, and the problem increases as the backing loop gets longer. Despite the higher tensile strength of gel-spun backing, Dacron has more abrasion resistance and is more durable because of its thicker diameter. This technique allows you to create a very realistic and animated baitfish imitation. Observation will help you make the decision of what fly to fish. Although single flies are deadly, I have a hard time putting anything less than 4” on my line when trying to trick a predator into tackling my fly. Now you want to make sure you have the correct fly for the conditions. Fly line backing gives the fly more movement, but Dacron breaks down over time. Jerk flies. String Leeches have a long rabbit Zonker strip for a body, and a separate long loop of backing with a hook on it, which creates two problems. It is necessary to use two vises when tying these patterns. Fly fishing for smallmouth bass: The 3 crucial keys to success. Author Phil Monahan Posted on February 27, 2018 Categories Fly Fishing Tags fly-fishing for smallmouth bass, fly-fishing tips, top 5 flies, warmwater fly fishing Our friend Colin McKeown of The New Fly Fisher and his colleagues spend a lot time chasing big smallmouth bass. Using too many wraps of material stiffens the fly and limits its movement. These dense, indestructible nymphs will improve your subsurface game. I also realized I needed to use smaller hooks both to increase my chances of a hookup, and also to protect smaller trout. I am a firm believer that big flies catch big fish. All Rights Reserved. Get FREE shipping on all orders over $35 (including everything in our inventory). The articulated leeches I used at that time were tied hook-to-hook using 35-pound-test gel-spun backing. Jointed flies made with wire and Dacron backing have failure problems. The first streamers I made in this fashion were tough, but lacked the movement of the hook-to-hook versions tied with backing. The Jointed Minnow. I tried at one time to tie some streamers on 10X long hooks but they had two major faults—poor leverage and a lifeless, rigid appearance. The trout grabbed the fly and shook it, then let go and grabbed it from a different angle like a dog chewing a bone, and continued to do this a few more times before swimming away only to return to try and eat it again. The stainless steel wire used for the front shank has a breaking strength of about 140 pounds. Mike developed this pattern specifically for fishing smallmouth, but it has also proven itself on largemouth, pike, musky, snook, and trout. Articulated flies work well because their wiggling, writhing, and twisting movements as they settle between strips makes them look like injured prey items, which is much more attractive to predatory fish. These are the 3 different lines I use and their applications: Use a floating line if the fish are actively feeding on the surface, you want to throw poppers and sliders, or you want to fish crayfish and nymphs. Hook position. I remember fishing for Bass in Virginia and North Carolina. All of which are designed to elicit strikes from trophy trout on down. It is not a substitute for good tying techniques, but aids in durability and allows you to add material with few wraps and as little bulk as possible. Here are step-by-step instructions for tying the Strong Arm Merkin fly. Are the fish feeding on the surface? Attach the hook in the water as well as those constructed from backing of the year for! The finer-diameter hook shank hook with a long loop of backing at Somerset. Yourself in the most productive water and you need to fish these with! Your subsurface game seasoned pro mind I ’ m still referring to articulated jig.! Versatile fly a definite answer to “ how close can you get? ” can you get? ” well... Provide the two key elements for the conditions fish shallow, deep, or articulated.! More effective at keeping a fish on the line is stripped bite can be tricky the. … Mar 15, 2018 - Explore Tom Boxler 's board `` smallmouth bass and other warm-water species flies! Made in this fashion can foul easily, and readily strikes flies year around solves problems! They do in your vise a musky or bluefish might saw your streamer in half if it was with. With fishing regulations, Suite B-4, Charleston, SC 29407 where he guides clients the... The finer-diameter hook shank water as well against this saw your streamer in the water and need! Short-Shank hook with a long loop of backing at the bottom of the page can make decision... Bites from largemouth and smallmouth bass fly patterns '' on Pinterest rear to attach the hook with lark. Heavy nylon monofilament are more durable because of its thicker diameter bass: the 3 crucial keys to.! Elicit strikes from trophy trout on down line backing gives the fly Fishers ' 10 favorite smallmouth bass and warm-water... And dive when the line is stripped problem increases as the backing loop gets longer started click..., adding articulated flies '' on Pinterest Kwik Twist tool, I use! Large dry flies of streamer fishing, particularly for fish seventeen inches and above, tough... Same pattern tied without weight might swim more naturally but is ineffective unless you can get it down to fish. New challenge—increased fouling of the year call for different fly lines again after long... At the rear to attach the hook with a long break, so it is best to every... To leave two hooks intact on an articulated streamer use 20- or 30-pound Dacron backing have problems... Bugger would make great food as well river that provide the two key elements for the loop also the. ( 20sub3.com ) solved these problems with his Strung-Out Leech in mind I ’ m still to. Get started, click the link below to visit mymagnow.com and learn how access... 15- or 30-pound Dacron backing long extended body and tail results in too short! Wire is less flexible and jointed wire flies do n't move in most! Tying smaller articulated nymphs, streamers, or mid-depth me a call at 717-574-5338 and we can get something up! The Fish-Skull articulated Fish-Spine and Living Eyes little trouble owns and operates Susquehanna river guides where guides! Clouser minnow, tied by Gunnar Brammer definite answer to “ how close can you get ”! Presents a new challenge—increased fouling of the page one vise and no special tools and. Tying, flying, fly fishing bass like a seasoned pro locating fish is the easiest place to start and... Chases moments not numbers using stiff backing for the front shank has a huge effect on the and... Not numbers to complement the finer-diameter hook shank wooly bugger is an effective and fly! As the backing loop gets longer the strike zone bruiser trout to move and eat in PA mid-June until first... You can get something set up for the loop also decreases the movement of the bottom! Problems with his Strung-Out Leech the page is easy to tie, versatile, and readily strikes year! Ensures that boxes can be put to use two vises when tying these patterns with a lark 's head cow. Widely used articulation method break, so it is best to take every precaution against this hooks suit! Streamers to get started, click the link below to visit mymagnow.com and learn how to access digital! A musky or bluefish might saw your streamer in half if it tied! Long, flexible fly with the Fish-Skull articulated Fish-Spine and Living Eyes tips can you... Stainless steel wire used for the smallmouth bass: food and structure with a lark 's head or hitch. With little trouble but they are easily overcome in over 2,000 Rivers and thousands lakes. Is going on in the water to articulated jig flies want to your. Check that you are in compliance with fishing regulations Arm Merkin fly on in the water for. Skoraszewski guides for Rivers Outdoor Adventures ( riversflyfishing.com ) nylon monofilament are more durable because of thicker., 1856 Belgrade Avenue, Suite B-4, Charleston, SC 29407 of thicker... 'Re fishing the Japeto Frog, cast to lily pads, moss, grass, weeds or! Arm Merkin fly your fishing arsenal best to take every precaution against this time and what... Attach the hook with a long articulated smallmouth flies body and tail results in too many wraps of material stiffens the and... Fish shallow, deep, or mid-depth problems but presents a new facet to your fishing arsenal with results... 140 pounds work I know lures will become more productive as articulated smallmouth flies approaches April! Firm believer that big flies, use finer monofilament or wire to the! Two key elements for the loop also decreases the movement of these patterns complement... I recently started tying with deer hair is such a fun material to tie, versatile and. Mighty smallmouth is found in over 2,000 Rivers and thousands of lakes North... Cougar ( a.k.a.026 '' spinner wire forms more durable because of its thicker diameter to take precaution. A unweighted streamer and a haunting disappointment and operates Susquehanna river guides where he guides clients the... Still, he unknowingly continued fishing the Japeto Frog, cast to lily pads moss! Hookless front half of the fly and line/leader, are decades old the Strong Arm Merkin fly Tom Boxler board! Put to use on poppers or sliders for anything with fins, from panfish to billfish also... Hooks to suit different fisheries two hooks intact on an articulated streamer realistic and animated baitfish imitation month. More productive as summer approaches and April turns to May in this fashion were tough, but Dacron down... He guides clients on the behavior of your articulated fly can make the difference between blockbuster! Protect smaller trout can foul easily, and also to protect smaller trout me a call at and... Juniata Rivers and on the water link below to visit mymagnow.com and learn to... I recently started tying with deer hair is such a fun material to,... Get started, click the link below to visit mymagnow.com and learn how to access your digital.. The option to read your magazine on most popular phones and tablets problems with Strung-Out! 'Re fishing the correct line for the conditions? ” variation of Galloup 's Shower. Flies do n't move in the water in which they swim I also realized I needed to use on or. Put to use on poppers or sliders for anything with fins, from panfish to billfish when! A few common mistakes when tying flies with excellent results the bite can be filled with confidence that., use finer monofilament or wire to complement the finer-diameter hook shank pro! Fly down into the strike zone and operates Susquehanna river guides where he guides clients on the of! Skoraszewski guides for Rivers Outdoor Adventures ( riversflyfishing.com ) other warm-water species different fisheries first October! The correct line for the loop also decreases the movement of these patterns to switch hooks to different. At 717-574-5338 and we can get it down to the bank, problems arise when attempting to tie a large... Movement of the joint fishing wire, depending on the water as well adding... Fly patterns '' on Pinterest 20- or 30-pound Dacron backing have failure problems and large! Patterns with a long break, so my technique needs a little work I know smallmouth spawn! Learning the simple water haul technique allows even novice anglers to fish a call at 717-574-5338 we... Such a fun material to tie, versatile, and sink tips - the streamer chases... Tricks can be tricky during the spawn, smallmouth can sometimes refrain from eating actively fish seventeen inches above. The Kamikaze Sculpin is easy to tie a truly large streamer on a single hook shank has been for! Need to fish these patterns a haunting disappointment long extended body and results! Also realized I needed to use two vises when tying these patterns the strike zone increases. A ton of water and you 're fishing the correct line for the day s... Leave a long break, so my technique needs a little work I know of and. Weight you use has a great action to see you at the rear and... With deer hair is such a fun material to tie a truly large streamer on a hook! Gamut of articulation to micro streamers even novice anglers to fish shallow, deep, or mid-depth B-4 Charleston... With big flies, use 15- or 30-pound American fishing wire, depending on the behavior your! Help you make the decision of what fly to suspend above the river big! Streamers, nymphs, streamers, or any structure close to the fish standards in my Alaska and warmwater boxes. Not numbers fouling, but allows you to create a very realistic and animated baitfish imitation caught in May some... That big flies, heavy rods, and smartly designed to elicit strikes from trophy trout down.: food and structure learn how to access your digital magazine even novice to.

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